WaterCooler Neuroscience

Wilf Nelson

A podcast that opens up brain science labs and teaches professional scientific techniques to everyone

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Brains Talking About Brains is a show where two psychologists/neurosciences talk about science papers in our virtual conference. This week however we are expanding into the other great love that all scientists have, that is talking about science fiction as if it was real. In this two-part discussion, Wilf and Jordana talk about movies and games to discuss what they see as psychologists when they watch some of the most popular science fiction around and what science-based wanderings does that lead to?

Dec 6

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Being in the zone is called a flow state in Psychology/Neuroscience, it is the state of focusing on one task to the point that information from the outside world can not even reach our conscious awareness. Team Flow is the very specific circumstance where we are in the zone or in a state of flow but we can specifically not ignore our teammates and integrate the information from other people while keeping that high level of focus. We also learn how professional video gamers are a perfect population for testing this phenomenon which is only a new field to academic study.

Dec 2

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Inhibition is a fundamental function of the brain, our brain can't always be on. In this episode we talk with our guest, Dr Corette Wierenga, to better understand how our neurons can be activated in a way that starts to promote the growth of inhibitory connections. This is how our brains balance themselves, it is a method for the brain to work in real-time to alter the strength of different signals and ensure that no one signal gets too strong in the brain.

Nov 26

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Tea is an almost universal drink across the world with tea trading having shaped huge portions of history. This episode won't be that grand but the hosts are going to break down a recent study that investigated how heavy tea drinkers have their brain networks altered in both the structure and function over the course of decades of drinking. Wilf and Jordana talk about what you can expect from drinking tea and when claims just need to be left alone

Nov 22

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Music doesn't always have to be emotional, music can just be a boring collection of notes and yet that is very rare. Even the beginning melody of a sound can bring about an enormous range of emotions for people, depending on the context, social situations and culture. This episode brings you a discussion of how different music was used to colour the perceptions and moods of participants watching a short video. The hosts unpack what we can tell about how we understand music both with brain data and without, and we also discuss how some brain imaging findings can be very deceptive.

Nov 15

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You may not expect the babbling of baby bats to be a topic for a neuroscience podcast but this week we are talking about how social calls in bats go through clear developmental stages without bats ever teaching one another. Bats learn calls, both for hunting, crying out and social calls not through being taught like humans are but by just copying others around them. Our guest Dr Ahana Aurora Fernandez has spent years in the jungles of Panama learning how bats of both genders learn the male bat mating call but then only males use it once they get to maturity. What is behind this mystery? To find out more tune in or check out our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Nov 11

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Everyone knows that humans have two hemispheres and there are famous cases of brains being split and conditions like Alien Hand Syndrome developing which bring forth arguments about if we have two or more personalities in our heads. Birds also have two hemispheres but their hemispheres are less connected than mammals and this leads to unusual differences in information processing. Quails are particularly special in having their hemispheres be more separate in a neurological sense before they mature and after maturity have better hemisphere communication. This means quails can prefer certain eyes, and by extension certain hemispheres, for processing information. Wilf and Jordana attempt to unpack this very confusing line of research

Nov 8

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Our brains tell stories about everything, from how we got to work to how we have spent the last decade of our life. In this episode, we are talking about how our brains and more specifically the hippocampus tracks the way that characters in stories move from scene to scene. Brendan walks us through his research and also how we can understand the pattern of activity we see for the main character versus the many different patterns of activity that we find for the side characters in the background. To find out more tune in or check out our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Nov 4

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Crying is a normal human function seen in people all across the world but there is quite a bit of difference in how and when people cry depending on their physiological, psychology, culture and gender. In this episode, we unpack the psychology and neuroscience behind crying to see what the research says about crying, and what is just 'common knowledge'

Nov 2

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A channel update for October 2021 by Wilf Nelson

Oct 8

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Hi, Wilf Nelson has just completed his thesis and is taking a short break to complete his PhD. We will be returning with new episodes in October and if you want to let us know if any topics are particularly interesting or important than check out the website at www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk and message us there.

Sep 29

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This episode brings the conclusion of Wilf's interview with Dr Bimal Lakhani. Wilf and Bimal focus in this part of the interview on how corporate culture can clash with the scientific method, and how common that can be. They also talk about what the difference is in key skills when working for a university and when working for a company. It boils down to one key concept, soft skills. Find out why in a company lab having well developed soft skills is the key to working well, and it isn't just to play politics.

Sep 22

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For the next part of September's releases in the Academia and Industry series, we are talking with Dr Bimal Lakhani. A postdoctoral researcher who was trained in universities but moved to work in a corporate lab. He talks about his experience of moving from the labs he trained into labs that focus on product development and how he views himself compared to the other scientists who are now employed full time by university labs. Bimal is also a senior scientist and is as high up as it gets without being a chief or board member. That means Bimal is the equivalent of your future boss for any scientist looking to make the jump. Wilf, gently, grills Bimal on what it is like to run a corporate lab and how his staff work differently in that environment compared to their PhDs.

Sep 15

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Brains Talking About Brains is approaching the topic of pain this week. Jordana and Wilf are looking at a paper where controlled and manageable pain, a small shock to the leg, is controlled not through medication or meditation but instead a simple memory task. How much can we understand the brain's ability to control pain? In this episode, we also look at how it is not just the brain that can have its pain signals altered by doing a memory task but even the spinal cord. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Sep 12

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We bring you the conclusion of the interview with Mohammed Ali and how the business that you start is very unlikely to be the business you are running year on year. We talk about how the development of ideas and projects is very natural for scientists, so why wouldn't it be the same in business? We talk about how to accept the changes from the publicly funded world to the private world and actually the great freedoms that Mohammed sees when you take the plunge.

Sep 8

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Sep 5

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September is bringing the return of the academia and industry series as many students and academics end their contracts and move on from universities, both voluntarily and due to circumstance. This interview brings you the first part of Wilf's discussion with Mohammed Ali who is an expert in helping scientists take their research and ideas from the lab into corporate ventures. You'd be surprised to hear it isn't that different. You are still the one driving your own work, relying on your intellect and imagination to see things others don't and handling almost everything yourself which really isn't too far away from the standard lecturer's life. Mohammed also explains where those wanting to make the jump need to appreciate the differences. This isn't the usual content of the network but the last year and a half have seen unprecedented numbers of researchers leave universities and this is one of the key options.

Sep 1

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There are definitely animals in the world that are conscious and aware, at least we can prove it to the same standard as any other human we can't talk to. There are also some animals, and other creatures from different kingdoms that we are not conscious of, again at least as far as we currently study consciousness. The usual method has been to assume a hierarchy with humans at the top, dogs a bit below, rodents below that and jellyfish even lower. This episode brings to you a recent scientific debate that such a hierarchy may not be wrong but for scientists is probably useless. We talk about the new dimensions of consciousness that are being put forward and how some animals excel in one area but fail in another. We must try to find a better way to understand how animals experience the world and do that as best as we can without using the lens of human experience. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 29

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This episode is the final of the shorts from S4 of WCNeuro. In this episode we are talking with Dr Giulio Rognini about how his work helps us to understand why our limbs feel like ours, why prosthetics even as responsive as human arms don't feel like ours and what we can do to fix that with very safe implants and AI that are no smarter than your phone. Giulio and Wilf also talk about their experiences with presenting ideas in the scientific community and why they don't think the accusations of gatekeeping are automatically correct but that doesn't always mean academia is the most welcoming or nurturing place. They talk about how science has very specific criteria to be useful across the world and that means critical evaluation and defence are necessary. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 25

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In this episode, Jordana and Wilf are diving into the world of experimental brain imaging. The paper of today's episode looked into how people can be scanned by an fMRI, an EEG and EROS (or Event-Related Optical Signalling). All of the scanning methods have their strengths, and at times considerable weaknesses but by using them together we can make new ways to scan the brain. Wilf also talks about his experience in an imaging lab and why scanning people with all these machines at once isn't likely to catch on as the standard method of research but it can offer insights for labs to find budget-friendly ways to study the brain. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 23

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This episode brings you conversations from S4 of WCNeuro that did not make it into the final season. We are talking with Dr Sebastian Musslick on his findings of how mental effort and cognitive limits in humans are probably not best related over to machines. What makes us capable and unique is not a very good model for AI and that means we have to view what we want AI to be in a very different way. Michael J Frank is also back in this episode to talk about how there is a neurological basis for the feeling that earning something yourself is much more rewarding. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 18

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Free Will has been a philosophical debate for as long as philosophical debates have existed and science has weighed in from time to time. Neuroscience really started its proper discussion of if humans are truly free with the work of Libet in 1985, although even Libet was working off earlier work. That research brought into the public mind the question of it the readiness potential, the charging up of your motor system to fire, could answer if humans are free or not. We are not 37 years after the initial study and new research is not questioning if free will is real, or if neuroscience has ways to answer the question but if the readiness potential is the best way to find out. In this episode, we dive into the methods behind the readiness potential and try to see if it is something from an era of neuroscience that we can replace now.

Aug 15

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This month is continuing your shorts from S4 of WCNeuro and bringing you a final snippet from Wilf's interview with John Dylan Haynes. We are talking about how to make artificial intelligence we have to define what intelligence even is, to set our goalpost to reach. John knows of a task force that was set to define intelligence and the result they came up with... well, it's interesting. After that Michael J Frank is back talking about how Parkinson's patients have an unusual pattern of neural behaviour which makes it seem like they are simply not motivated. We break down why this is the case in very specific scientific language and why that really isn't the case in every other context. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 11

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This episode has Jordana and Wilf talking about a review paper that wants to 'shift the paradigm' and discuss how children use the executive function, the ability to alter their actions, and where we should be studying to understand that process. This paper however was written in a way that doesn't fit many scientific standards so we will be hearing from Jordana about how this paper can inform clinical studies and open our minds to new ways to think about how thought and movement are linked. On the other hand, Wilf will be talking about how from an academic perspective this theory has problems and there is an issue with vagueness in this paper which makes it much harder to understand from the research science side of Brains Talking about Brains. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 8

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This episode is bringing you shorts from WCNeuro S4 which did not make it into the main episode. We will be talking about how very controlled experiments in the lab do not automatically relate to flashy headlines like airports are going to read your mind while you go through a metal detector. We also talk about how subliminal messaging is one of the weakest psychological tools a scientist can use, but why supraliminal messaging is everywhere and does have any effect on you. That effect is just not that scary. Wilf also mentions a paper by Dr Davinina Fernadez-Espejo in this episode, the following link provides context to that paper and findings https://jme.bmj.com/content/41/7/534. This show is sponsored by NeuroCatch Inc., an objective quick measure of brain health available today. If you would like to know more about NeuroCatch Inc. please head to our website www.watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk

Aug 4

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Today's episode is looking into a paper that studies how our memory builds up the scene around us. It goes without saying that our ability to see is incredible but the mechanics of how our eyes dart around a room, remember details subconsciously and then continue to the next point is the focus of this episode. We are talking about Dr James Kragel's work on this fascinating topic but also talking about how even professional neuroscientists can find new concepts challenging and what both Jordana's and Wilf's backgrounds brought to their understanding of this cutting edge work.

Aug 1

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Few professionals require someone to be familiar with how their voice is heard and how people in turn become familiar with a voice than podcasters. Today's guest however is even more of an expert is one of the researchers around the world who study the processing humans do to understand voices. Voice perception and language perception are automatic in humans, even if you don't understand someone's language you can still learn to recognise their voice. You would think that Neuroscience, a field that is decades old, and Psychology, a field that is over a century old, would just have solved the mystery of how the brain processes and familiarises itself with voices but in reality, we are still learning. Cutting edge Neuroscience and Psychology still focus on understanding processes that day to day is the definition of mundane. Listen in to hear how Dr Holmes' work is finding out that voice processing is anything but boring.

Jul 28

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With AI being used across neuroscience we find hundreds of different ways to 'use AI'. In Season 4 of WaterCooler Neuroscience Wilf Nelson talked with world experts to find out what modern AI and computational neuroscience is. In that series, we found one of the best ways to use AI is to make artificial versions of our experiments and see if they work when only the models we create are running the show, no sneaky helping hand from nature to get our experiment to come up positive. In this episode of BTAB Jordana and Wilf are continuing that thought by talking about a paper that was first run in mice in a lab and then re-runs in a computer with a simulation to see if the theoretical model scientists said was running the mice brain could do all the stimulating activities. Listen in to what modern-day AI is really doing.

Jul 25

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Art is not typically an area of study for Neuroscience and Psychology given the fields' preference for simple experimental stimuli and as little interpretation as possible. Dr Vessel however explores how people experience and are influenced by art using experimental Psychology. We want to better understand not just how people report interacting with Art but then how Art alters their behaviour, thoughts and perceptions in the same way we would test anything else in a professional lab. We bring you Dr Vessel's work on understanding how artwork can inspire people to write stories.

Jul 21

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Brains Talking about Brains is not just a show about human or even animal psychology. It is a show about Psychology in all its forms and now that can include AI psychology. AI are not conscious and thinking as sci-fi movies would define them but AI that runs phones, servers and statistics programs do have regular patterns for how they handle information. Those patterns can form the basis for understanding the psychology of a thing and in this episode, Jordana and Wilf are talking about a theoretical paper that tries to explain the weirdness of reported human dreams through a quirk of AI data processing. Because science must be falsifiable Wilf and Jordana set out to see if this theory can be tested with an experiment, if it can be falsified and where that might just not be possible right now.

Jul 18

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EEG caps have been around in one form or another for almost a century and have drastically increased the ways that brain science can be done through a cheap, reliable and data rich method. However, EEGs are usually confined to university and hospital labs with arduous sets up nothing like how movies can make EEG experiments appear. Today I am talking with Dr Jyoti Mishra about how her work is taking an easy to use cap and bringing it to schools, outpatients and those in isolated situations so Neuroscience can better understand people who don't fit the usual participant criteria.

Jul 14

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To finish off this series of WaterCooler Neuroscience we are talking about why AI probably shouldn't be a general intelligence. General intelligence is what humans have, we can turn our minds to anything we chose and learn new things with success based on how intelligent we are overall. AI does not work like this; an AI is trained to be good at one thing but fail. Look no further than asking a chess expert to make a cheese sandwich versus a chess AI, the chess AI can't even be spoken to. We talk about why many specific AI is probably the best route for the future rather than a general AI that tries to mimic human behaviour. If you aren't convinced consider your phone is already a collection of very specific AI instead of one general AI.

Jul 12

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There are things our brains do that are so natural and obvious we don't even notice our brain does it. One of those things is the perception that we have a body, even if you feel pain or that something is slightly off with your body you always perceive that you have a body. In this episode, we are talking about how researchers are working to understand how our brain is constantly measuring our limbs to keep track of what they are and what state they are in and more importantly we are learning how AI can help us replicate those signals in amputees. If you want to see the future of brain-body research and prosthetics then tune in.

Jul 12

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In Season 4 of WaterCooler Neuroscience, we have spoken a lot about the abstract ways to use AI to understand the brain. In this episode, we talk with Michael J Frank about a more grounded, clinical use of AI in understanding the study and uses of dopamine across the brain. What is dopamine? What do disorders of dopamine teach us and how can we better understand it in this modern age of neuroscience?

Jul 12

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Computational Neuroscience is a toolbox for researchers to use on whatever they want. AI can mean using a basic analysis program all the way to programs that can simulate and create new faces or new models of information. In this episode, we talk with Thomas Carlson about how to build a modern computational neuroscience lab from the ground up.

Jul 12

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Even simple phones can tell if they are looking at a face or at least a photo of a face, and that is thanks to developments in teaching AI how to understand the makeup of a human face. This technology however originated in labs as researchers tried to use the enormous data processing capabilities of AI to understand how humans see faces. In this episode, we talk with Nikolaus Kriegeskorte about how his labs use AI to study the many different ways we see images. We also learn about how AI competition works, many AI can be made to do a task but we need to test and understand which is better to make better machines and programs in the future.

Jul 12

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Computational Neuroscience has had many massive claims in the future mostly around being able to disprove free will or use AI code to mindread what people are thinking in courtrooms and airports. In this episode, we bring you the neuroscientist who is the basis for many of these claims, and he never said any of those things. We delve into what we can really say using AI about how people make decisions and what they think about by talking with John about his illustrious career.

Jul 12

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Burnout is a topical psychological condition but many people in the workplace do not meet the criteria for burnout, according to psychologists. Burnout has a very set definition and while psychology recognises stress, disenfranchisement, cynicism and the desire to leave work.... are any of those by themselves burnout? Jordana and Wilf break down for you how academics define burnout, engagement and how those ideas move through to psychiatric help.

Jul 11

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AI are always in the news and regularly credited with amazing advancements in the data processing. AI has become so capable of handling complex data the field of computational neuroscience is now flourishing around the world. This series will talk with experts on computational neuroscience to see how AI and brains are coming together. We start the series with a discussion with John Laird and while he is not a neuroscientist he does make AI from the ground up. John is an expert in making AI and he talks with us about what they can and can't do, what he uses them for in his lab and why he isn't worried about AI trying to kill us all.

Jul 9

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Boredom is an incredibly powerful human emotion and drives us to not rest, to try new things and is the power behind our curiosity. Dr Erin Westgate is an expert on what boredom is, how it manifests in our lives and what is it that triggers boredom. If you are interested in this show you should also check out Dr Nick Buttrick's work on S2 EP2 of WCNeuro where Nick talks about his work with boredom which was with Erin a few years ago (https://watercoolerneuroscience.co.uk/wc-neuro-season-two/) Sponsored by I Know What Scares You.

Jul 7

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Jordana and Wilf talk in-depth about a recent neuroscience review of hundreds of papers that show that the biological differences between men and women when it comes to brains are minimal if there are at all. We talk about how size differences can result in false reports of sex differences, how poor study design results in bad results and most important why very complex neuroscience shouldn't be boiled down into one headline. Listen in for our discussion about sex, brains, size and even maths, language and all those things you've been told are different just because of a chromosome.

Jul 4

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Sound is caused by vibration, something has to be moving to cause sound so when you are hunting sound is very important because it tells you things your eyes are going to miss. Humans can track sounds, we all know that, but how do we track sounds and what would be the best ways to track sounds? It turns you you need some mathematicians to make your code, some engineers to build a very impressive sound chamber and then psychologists and neuroscientists to make sense of the whole thing. Our guest on this episode walks us through it.

Jun 30

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This episode delves into the world of neuroscience posters which are shorthand for presenting research to the academic world. Posters provide a way for scientists to have their work reviewed for a conference but it is not as rigorous as an academic journal. In this episode, Jordana and Wilf are looking at how the neurotransmitter serotonin and varieties of serotonin receptors can alter how people score on professional personality scores. Jordana breaks down her experiences with people who are on the most extreme scores of sensitivity and Wilf talks about how academic personality tools differ a lot from those available both online and for business.

Jun 27

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Say you are the kind of person who is trustworthy enough to be given a lab with dozens of research mice. Also, say that you are the kind of person who does good science and tests male and female rats in equal measure to test if chromosomes and sex hormones might cause a difference in how the brain works. Then say you were smart enough to realise some drugs may alter memory. Well if all of those things are true then you are Dr Raul Andero Gali and the guest of this episode talking about how to better understand why certain drugs change the behaviour of mice when it comes to forming memories. This episode in particular talks about neurodiversity, that through these drugs we can understand how male and female brains are different in their structure but that doesn't mean they are different in how they function in everyday life. Curious, then tune in.

Jun 23

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Mindblindness, or aphantasia, is the neurological inability to visually imagine anything really. People with mindblindness can imagine and as far as we know have no other cognitive deficits, that being a scientific deficit which just means something is missing not wrong. In this episode, we delve into the topic of mindblindness, why it has only recently been studied and how mindblindness can be seen in everyday life. most importantly we talk about why as psychologists we are totally ok with it.

Jun 20

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Alzheimer's is a form of dementia known around the world for its powerful ability to remove personality, cognitive function and your sense of time and space based on the information around you. Alzheimer's has been studied for decades and now with incredible datasets we are using modern AI techniques to better understand that Alzheimer's isn't just one disease, it has many forms and many different progressions through the brain. As part of the toolbox of neuroscientists and psychologists around the world, let's see what AI has to say about Alzheimer's.

Jun 16

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Brain-Computer Interface, or using the older term cybernetics, is a field now that doesn't care about implants but instead uses safe machines like EEG and fMRI to study patterns of brain activity that computers can interpret into commands. In this episode, we talk about cutting edge research that wants to know if imaging motor movement the best way to control a machine or can we use our memories and emotions to better effect? If you haven't listened to Episode 6 of Brains Talking about Brains I would recommend it because it provides an introduction to this subject, also see Think Fast Season 2 Episode 21 with Michiel Spape for his work on teaching machines to understand human brains.

Jun 13

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Before you think I am talking about human females and this is a discussion of gender or culture, no. This is about females of almost any species around the world from insects to us. Dr Freyberg delves into how the brain uses dopamine and makes sure it doesn't turn into a poison in our brains. Females, however, handle this process very differently from males and we go into what that means for our brains, and why that doesn't mean we see totally different cognition.

Jun 9

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In 1997 Cognitive Neuroscience was in its infancy and there was much more about the brain we didn't understand than we do. The goal of understanding how brain waves and neural function linked was the dream of neuroscientists around the world. In this paper, we look at the odd finding which is that when you use EEG it can be very hard to tell if someone is moving their arm or just imagining moving their arm. We talk about how this is a foundational study in the world of neuroscience, its applications even today and how it paved the way for the future.

Jun 6

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Bethany Teachman is this episode's guest bringing her expertise in both teaching people how to treat anxiety and her research into the different ways our brain processes anxiety. Along with her, research Bethany talks to our host Wilf Nelson about the differences in anxiety disorders, introspection and health worries. If you ever wanted to know how modern-day clinics view anxiety and what inspires them to try to help then this is the interview you've been waiting to hear. Spoiler alert, the goal is always to make you be the best version of yourself that you want to be.

Jun 2

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