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2019-032-kubernetes security audit dicussion with Jay Beale and Aaron Small

By Brian Boettcher, Amanda Berlin, and Bryan Brake

Topics:Infosec Campout report Derbycon Pizza Party (with podcast show!)  https://www.eventbrite.com/e/brakesec-pizza-party-at-the-derbycon-mental-health-village-tickets-69219271705 Mental health village at Derbycon   Jay Beale (co-lead for audit) *Bust-a-Kube*   Aaron Small (product mgr at GKE/Google) Atreides Partners Trail of Bits   What was the Audit?  How did it come about?    Who were the players?     Kubernetes Working Group         Aaron, Craig, Jay, Joel     Outside vendors:         Atredis: Josh, Nathan Keltner         Trail of Bits: Stefan Edwards, Bobby Tonic , Dominik     Kubernetes Project Leads/Devs         Interviewed devs -- this was much of the info that went into the threat model         Rapid Risk Assessments - let’s put the GitHub repository in the show notes     What did it produce?     Vuln Report     Threat Model - https://github.com/kubernetes/community/blob/master/wg-security-audit/findings/Kubernetes%20Threat%20Model.pdf     White Papers     https://github.com/kubernetes/community/tree/master/wg-security-audit/findings       Discuss the results:         Threat model findings             Controls silently fail, leading to a false sense of security                 Pod Security Policies, Egress Network Rules             Audit model isn’t strong enough for non-repudiation                 By default, API server doesn’t log user movements through system             TLS Encryption weaknesses                 Most components accept cleartext HTTP                 Boot strapping to add Kubelets is particularly weak                        Multiple components do not check certificates and/or use self-signed certs                 HTTPS isn’t enforced                 Certificates are long-lived, with no revocation capability                 Etcd doesn’t authenticate connections by default             Controllers all Bundled together                 Confused Deputy: b/c lower priv controllers bundled in same binary as higher             Secrets not encrypted at rest by default             Etcd doesn’t have signatures on its write-ahead log             DoS attack: you can set anti-affinity on your pods to get nothing else scheduled on their nodes               Port 10255 has an unauthenticated HTTP server for status and health checking         Vulns / Findings (not complete list, but interesting)             Hostpath pod security policy bypass via persistent volumes             TOCTOU when moving PID to manager’s group             Improperly patched directory traversal in kubectl cp             Bearer tokens revealed in logs             Lots of MitM risk:             SSH not checking fingerprints: InsecureIgnoreHostKey             gRPC transport seems all set to WithInsecure() HTTPS connections not checking certs              Some HTTPS connections are unauthenticated             Output encoding on JSON construction                 This might lead to further work, as JSON can get written to logs that may be consumed elsewhere.             Non-constant time check on passwords Lack of re-use / library-ification of code       Who will use these findings and how? Devs, google, bad guys?      Any new audit tools created from this?    Brad geesaman “Hacking and Hardening Kubernetes Clusters by Example [I] - Brad Geesaman, Symantec   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTgQLzeBfRU   Aaron Small:  https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/gcp/precious-cargo-securing-containers-with-kubernetes-engine-18  https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/gcp/exploring-container-security-running-a-tight-ship-with-kubernetes-engine-1-10 https://cloud.google.com/kubernetes-engine/docs/how-to/hardening-your-cluster    CNCF:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90kZRyPcRZw  Findings:       Scope for testing:         Source code review (what languages did they have to review?)             Golang, shell, ...   Networking (discuss the networking *internal* *external* Cryptography (TLS, data stores) AuthN/AuthZ  RBAC (which roles were tested? Just admin/non-admin *best practice is no admin/least priv*) Secrets Namespace traversals Namespace claims   Methodology: Setup a bunch of environments?     Primarily set up a single environment IIRC     Combination of code audit and active ?fuzzing?         What does one fuzz on a K8s environment? Tested with latest alpha or production versions?     Version 1.13 or 1.14 - version locked at whatever was current - K8S releases a new version every 3 months, so this is a challenge and means we have to keep auditing. Tested mulitple different types of k8s implementations?     Tested primarily against kubespray (https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/kubespray) Bug Bounty program: https://github.com/kubernetes/community/blob/master/contributors/guide/bug-bounty.md   Check out our Store on Teepub! https://brakesec.com/store Join us on our #Slack Channel! Send a request to @brakesec on Twitter or email bds.podcast@gmail.com #Brakesec Store!:https://www.teepublic.com/user/bdspodcast #Spotify: https://brakesec.com/spotifyBDS #RSS: https://brakesec.com/BrakesecRSS #Youtube Channel:  http://www.youtube.com/c/BDSPodcast #iTunes Store Link: https://brakesec.com/BDSiTunes #Google Play Store: https://brakesec.com/BDS-GooglePlay Our main site:  https://brakesec.com/bdswebsite #iHeartRadio App:  https://brakesec.com/iHeartBrakesec #SoundCloud: https://brakesec.com/SoundcloudBrakesec Comments, Questions, Feedback: bds.podcast@gmail.com Support Brakeing Down Security Podcast by using our #Paypal: https://brakesec.com/PaypalBDS OR our #Patreon https://brakesec.com/BDSPatreon #Twitter: @brakesec @boettcherpwned @bryanbrake @infosystir #Player.FM : https://brakesec.com/BDS-PlayerFM #Stitcher Network: https://brakesec.com/BrakeSecStitcher #TuneIn Radio App: https://brakesec.com/TuneInBrakesec

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