Vince Guaraldi was a well-respected jazz pianist whose greatest success came from avenues usually closed to contemporary jazz artists: he enjoyed a hit single at a time when jazz had largely been exiled from the pop charts, and he scored a series of very successful animated television specials, a medium where cookie-cutter pop music was traditionally the order of the day.
Guaraldi's first full album with his own group, simply titled The Vince Guaraldi Trio, was issued by Fantasy in 1956, and featured the pianist with guitarist Eddie Duran and bassist Dean Reilly. Guaraldi's first big break came in 1962; with his new trio (Monty Budwig on bass and Colin Bailey on drums), he recorded an album called Jazz Impressions of Black Orpheus, in which the combo interpreted selections from Antonio Carlos Jobim and Luiz Bonfá's score for Marcel Camus' classic film. To fill out the album, Guaraldi included an original tune he'd written called "Cast Your Fate to the Wind." "Samba de Orpheus" was released as a single, with "Cast Your Fate" as the B-side; "Samba de Orpheus" attracted little notice, but a DJ at Sacramento radio station KROY heard "Cast Your Fate" and liked it enough to put it in regular rotation. Other stations followed suit and "Cast Your Fate to the Wind" became a hit, rising to the Top 20 of the pop charts and earning Guaraldi a gold record as well as a Grammy for Best Original Jazz Composition. (The single's unlikely success even prompted a television special on San Francisco's public television outlet KQED, entitled Anatomy of a Hit.) Following the success of "Cast Your Fate," Guaraldi recorded a handful of albums with guitarist Bola Sete and composed an unusual song cycle in which he and his trio accompanied the choir of San Francisco's Grace Cathedral for what Rev. Charles Gompertz called "a modern setting for the choral Eucharist."
But it was in 1964 that Guaraldi took his first step toward the music that would make him most famous. Lee Mendelson and Bill Melendez, a pair of television writers and producers, were working on a documentary about Charles Schulz, the creator of the popular comic strip Peanuts, and they approached Guaraldi to compose the score. The documentary never aired, but when Mendelson and Melendez teamed up with Schulz in 1965 to create an animated Christmas special featuring the Peanuts characters, they wanted a score with a different flavor than most Saturday morning cartoons, and once again asked Guaraldi to collaborate. A Charlie Brown Christmas was an immediate hit with audiences and critics alike, and has become a Yuletide perennial, broadcast every December, and Guaraldi's score -- by turns full of contemplative beauty and brimming with high-spirited joy -- was cited by many as one of the best things about the show. When Mendelson, Melendez, and Schulz began work on a second Peanuts special, It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, Guaraldi was again invited to write the music. He became an integral part of the production team behind the specials (generally at least one was produced each year), and also wrote music for the Peanuts-themed feature film A Boy Named Charlie Brown. Guaraldi's work on the Peanuts projects kept him busy enough that he would release only six more albums during the rest of his recording career (including two albums for Warner Bros. that found him experimenting with electric instruments), though he kept up a schedule of live performances in addition to his television commitments. On February 6, 1976, Vince Guaraldi died of a heart attack in a hotel room in Menlo Park, California; he had completed recording of his score for It's Arbor Day, Charlie Brown earlier in the day, and was resting between shows during a nightclub engagement when he collapsed and never woke up.