During his career, Marsalis has managed to be a controversial figure despite his obvious abilities. His selective knowledge of jazz history (considering post-1965 avant-garde playing to be outside of jazz and '70s fusion to be barren) is unfortunately influenced by the somewhat eccentric beliefs of Stanley Crouch, and his hiring policies as musical director of the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra
led to exaggerated charges of ageism and racism from local writers. However, more than balancing all of this out is Marsalis' inspiring work with youngsters, many of whom he has introduced to jazz; a few young musicians, such as Roy Hargrove
, have been directly helped by Marsalis.
Marsalis' trumpet playing has been both over-criticized and (at least early on) overpraised. When he first arrived on the scene with the Jazz Messengers, his original inspiration was Freddie Hubbard
. However, by the time he began leading his own group, Marsalis often sounded very close to Miles Davis
(particularly when holding a long tone), although a version of Davis
with virtuosic technique. He was so widely praised by the jazz press at the time (due to their relief that the future of jazz finally seemed safe) that there was an inevitable backlash. Marsalis' sometimes inaccurate statements about jazz of the '70s and the avant-garde in general made some observers angry, and his rather derivative tone at the time made it seem as if there was always going to have to be an asterisk by his name when evaluating his talents. Some listeners formed permanent impressions of Marsalis as a Miles Davis
imitator, but they failed to take into account that he was still improving and developing. With the 1990 recording Tune in Tomorrow, Marsalis at last sounded like himself. He had found his own voice by exploring earlier styles of jazz (such as Louis Armstrong
's playing), mastering the wah-wah mute, and studying Duke Ellington
. From that point on, even when playing a Miles Davis
standard, Marsalis had his own sound and has finally taken his place as one of jazz's greats.
The son of pianist Ellis Marsalis
, the younger brother of Branford
and the older brother of Delfeayo
(the Marsalis clan as a whole can be accurately called "The First Family of Jazz"), Wynton (who was named after pianist Wynton Kelly
) received his first trumpet at age six from Ellis
' employer, Al Hirt
. He studied both classical and jazz and played in local marching bands, funk groups, and classical orchestras. Marsalis played first trumpet in the New Orleans Civic Orchestra while in high school. He went to Juilliard when he was 18 and in 1980 he made his first recordings with the Art Blakey Big Band
and joined the Jazz Messengers.
By 1981, the young trumpeter was the talk of the jazz world. He toured with Herbie Hancock
(a double LP resulted), continued working with Blakey
, signed with Columbia
, and recorded his first album as a leader. In 1982, Marsalis not only formed his own quintet (featuring brother Branford
and soon Kenny Kirkland
, Charnett Moffett
, and Jeff "Tain" Watts
) but recorded his first classical album; he was immediately ranked as one of the top classical trumpeters of all time. His quintet with Branford
lasted until late 1985, although a rift developed between the brothers (fortunately temporary) when Branford
finally quit the band to tour with Sting
's pop group. By that time Wynton was a superstar, winning a countless number of awards and polls.
In 1997, Marsalis' marathon Blood on the Fields (which was released as a three-CD set) became the first jazz-based work to win a Pulitzer Prize. Standard Time, Vol. 5: The Midnight Blues followed a year later. With the passing of so many jazz giants, Marsalis' importance (as a trumpeter, leader, writer, and spokesman for jazz) continued to grow. Standard Time, Vol. 4: Marsalis Plays Monk followed in 1999 to coincide with the popular PBS special. Then, as if eight proper recordings in 1999 weren't enough, Columbia
and Marsalis released an amazingly affordable seven-disc set entitled Live at the Village Vanguard. Mid-2000 saw the release of Marciac Suite and Goin' Down Home. Two years later, Marsalis celebrated the blues on All Rise. Next up was his first album for Blue Note
, The Magic Hour, an album of original material released early in 2004. Later that year, the label released Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson, Marsalis' soundtrack to a Ken Burns documentary. Marsalis' second studio effort for Blue Note
, the politically and socially aware From the Plantation to the Penitentiary, followed in 2007.
In 2008, Marsalis teamed up with country icon Willie Nelson
for the live album Two Men with the Blues, which featured the duo performing over a two-night stint at Lincoln Center. The following year, Marsalis released the concept album He and She, in which he explored the theme of relationships between men and women. In 2011, he returned with the live album Here We Go Again: Celebrating the Genius of Ray Charles, which once again paired him with Nelson
as well as vocalist Norah Jones
. That same year, Marsalis, who had previously guested on guitarist Eric Clapton
's 2010 album Clapton, again paired with the rock/blues master for the concert album Play the Blues: Live from Jazz at Lincoln Center. Also in 2011, Marsalis contributed the score to Burns' documentary Prohibition.
Over the next few years, Marsalis kept busy performing, as well as appearing regularly on television as a cultural correspondent for CBS Sunday Morning. He also joined the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra
) for Live in Cuba, a 2015 two-disc release featuring the ensemble's first-ever performances in Cuba. In 2016, Marsalis released The Abyssinian Mass, a recording of his 2008 composition commemorating the 200th anniversary of Harlem's Abyssinian Baptist Church. An extensive work, The Abyssinian Mass showcased the connections between secular and sacred music and featured the JLCO
along with Damien Sneed
and Chorale le Chateau. In early 2017, The Music of John Lewis, a 2013 Lincoln Center concert celebrating the music of the Modern Jazz Quartet
founder, was released and featured collaborator Jon Batiste
. The concert compilation, United We Swing: Best of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Galas, appeared in 2018 and showcased Marsalis' septet alongside such guest luminaries as Ray Charles
, Bob Dylan
, Eric Clapton
, and more. ~ Scott Yanow, Rovi